Stuff White People Say

October 22, 2009

Undercover to Discover Life as a Black Man in Germany

Filed under: Uncategorized — jwbe @ 9:44 am

LINK

Günter Wallraff is Germany’s most famous investigative journalist. He’s made a name for himself by going undercover to reveal the hidden side of many social issues. In his new film, he disguises himself as a black person to explore racial discrimination in Germany. His approach, however, is drawing criticism.

German journalist Günter Wallraff has accomplished a lot in his career. He has revealed to the German public how so-called “guest workers,” immigrants from Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain and other countries who came here in the 1950s and 60s and stayed, are discriminated against in this country, the questionable working methods of Bild, the country’s top-selling tabloid newspaper, and how call-center employees are exploited. His latest project also seems like a noble one. “I want to find out,” he says, “what it’s like to be black in Germany.”

The project involves both a book, “Aus der schönen neuen Welt” (“Out of the Beautiful New World”), and a film, “Schawarz auf Weiss” (“Black on White”), which will be released in theaters in Germany on Thursday. As part of the film, Wallraff has a makeup artist cover him in dark brown makeup, he wears brown contact lenses and he dons an afro wig. Then, using the alias Kwami Ogonno, he takes a trip across Germany. He goes to a soccer game in the eastern city of Cottbus, attends a city festival in Magdeburg, tries to secure a place to pitch a tent in campground in the Teutoburg Forest and takes his German shepherd to dog training in Cologne.

The film reveals the frightening degree of both blatant and latent racism in Germany. When he goes to festivals, people refuse to drink beer on the same bench. Landlords refuse to rent apartments to him. People seem to have no compunction about calling him the German word for “negro.” And hooligans in Eastern Germany even threaten him with physical violence.

Reception in the Black German Community

There’s just one odd thing about the movie: If Wallraff really wanted to find out what it’s like to live as a black in Germany, why didn’t he take the time to let any blacks living in Germany answer the question?

Wallraff’s modus operandi is to go undercover and film it to help show and tell what he experiences. He became famous for his 1977 film in which he infiltrated Bild under the alias of Hans Esser. Six years later, he disguised himself as the Turkish guest worker Ali Levent. But is this method appropriate for his new subject matter?

Black Germans are on the fence about the film. “We find the mindset behind Mr. Wallraff’s film very problematic,” says Tahir Della, a spokeswoman from the Initiative of Black People in Germany (ISD). “As is so often the case, someone is speaking for rather than with us.” Noah Sow, an educator and musician associated with the media watchdog organization Der braune Mob (The Brown Mob), even goes so far as to accuse Wallraff of “making money from our suffering” regardless of whether he “really intends to combat (racism) or not.”

There’s something odd about how Wallraff handles the issues of racism in his movie and book as compared with how he handles his other journalistic excursions. For example, in the book’s chapter on homelessness, his conversations with several homeless people — including Manfred, the software entrepreneurs, Walter, the truck driver, and Timo, the high school dropout — take up several pages. But you’d be hard-pressed to find the transcript of a conversation with anyone black.

Granted, in one episode in the film, Wallraff gathers stories about blacks who have been discriminated against in various German administrative offices. And then he dons his disguise to see what it’s like for himself. Accompanied by Avad, a black German, he tries to sign up to take the exam to get a hunting license. But the bureaucrats react aggressively to his request and refuse to provide him with information about the test. Avad doesn’t say a word, though, and he is never asked what it’s like when public servants refused to help him land a job. In the end, Wallraff pushes him out of the picture, too.

The main criticism levied against Wallraff’s film is that it fails to portray the debate about racism against blacks in Germany as being as advanced as it really is. For example, Della criticizes the film for “making absolutely no mention” of how much blacks in Germany have organized themselves. “We’re happy that racism is discussed,” she says, “but black groups have been doing the same thing for over 25 years.”

Sow* has a similar criticism. “Wherever you look,” [s]he says, “whether it’s in academia, publishing or the annual reports of anti-discrimination offices, knowledge about everyday racism is present — and accessible with the click of a mouse.” [S]he adds that: “Whites just have to stop ignoring and doubting these findings.” As [s]he sees it, the only reason Wallraff succeeds in drawing attention to the plight of Kwami Ogonno is that he is “privileged in the racist system (over) research results, publications and testimonials produced by blacks.”

The stories of black Germans have been portrayed in films, books and songs for many years. In 2006, the documentary “Black Deutschland” was released, which featured leading black Germans in the artistic community speaking about how blacks are perceived by themselves and others. In 2007, the black German actress, television host and film director Mo Asumang released “Roots Germania,” a film about her search for her family’s roots. And, in 2009, black German rapper Samy Deluxe released an album and book entitled “Dis wo ich herkomm” (“That’s Where I’m From”), both of which present a controversial examination of his relationship with Germany, his native country.

In response to such criticisms, however, Wallruff complains that “unfortunately, too few people either watch or read” these works. “It’d be much better,” he adds, “if they enjoyed a wider audience.”

What Is True in True-to-life?

While conducting research for his film, Wallraff even contacted the ISD to obtain reports about the experiences of blacks in Germany. He also consulted with Mouctar Bah, a prominent black human rights activist in Germany. But neither Bah nor any other blacks are interviewed as part of the film’s on-screen action.

“That would have made it another film,” Wallraff told SPIEGEL ONLINE. “As is the case in all of my roles, its about experiencing a situation at the gut level.” He also believes that it was completely appropriate to use is undercover method when treating this issue as well. “My approach makes everyday racism comprehensible for Germans,” he says — meaning, of course, white Germans.

When he played a Turkish guest worker living in Germany 25 years ago, Wallraff gave both a voice and a face to a segment of society that, at the time, was hardly represented in the German media at all. In 2009, as can be seen with the examples of Mo Asumang, Samy Deluxe and many others, black Germans have firmly established a presence in the public eye. But Wallraff pointedly chose not to place his Kwami character in the professional world. “With my Ali character, I wanted to expose discrimination in the world of work,” Wallraff says. “But, with Kwami, I purposefully chose a character that could help people primarily see the kind of racist things that happen in everyday life.”

A Failure to Make Subtle Differentiations

One of the things that Wallraff makes clear in his film is how the lines between race and class discrimination become blurred. For example, when he goes about as Kwami Ogonno wearing no jacket, carrying only a plastic bag and speaking broken German, he is usually treated like anyone else who is economically marginalized. But when he dresses stylishly and speaks German without an accent when visiting an expensive watch store in Düsseldorf, he is treated with the utmost courtesy.

When he delivered his speech on racism in 2008, then-presidential candidate Barack Obama touched upon this issue of how race and class conflicts often get tangled up together. He spoke about “the resentments of white Americans” who feel threatened by gains made by blacks in American society. He went on to say that “to label (white Americans) as misguided or even racist without recognizing they are grounded in legitimate concerns (also) widens the racial divide and blocks the path to understanding.” In the end, he concludes that they would both benefit more by fighting together for more opportunities.

In his film and book, however, Wallraff fails to reach this sort of subtle differentiation. In the film, he particularly complains that, as a black man, he is “always defined exclusively based on the color of his skin.” “When you’re black,” he says in one of the film’s few moments of commentary, “people don’t focus on or even recognize what really makes you a person.”

Still, he also seems to commit this same fault of over-simplification in his film. “In my role, I usually just made do without any personal history,” he says. “I was simply just ‘the other,’ ‘the black other.'”

* Noah Sow is a woman therefore I edited the parts where Der Spiegel refers to her as “he”

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20 Comments »

  1. This is interesting. I think for somebody who doesn’t “get” that racism is a real phenomenon, perhaps that might be a good exercise(?). Maybe even for folks who are in hate groups too(?)–get just a slight glimpse firsthand. But his approach is really not necessary for somebody to simply try to make a point that racism is a real problem as suggested by the film critics, when there are people who can share their firsthand experiences. His approach devalues and undermines the lived experiences Black Germans face in their everyday lives and yes, certainly ignores the struggles. Thus, I have to question his motives. Tied to money, making a name for himself at the cost of the oppressed, etc. And even worse, perhaps assuming that he is now the expert on the experiences above Black Germans because he did this. Because of that, it’s hard for me not to question even racist undertones that might be linked with black-face performances since it was not even necessary for him to dress up in the first place to find the same information. Yet like American liberals, he would probably just say, “Heh! How dare you! I’m not racist! After all, I’m only trying to prove to you racism exists!” And like noted above, this information is all just a click away on a mouse–why not rely on the firsthand lived realities rather than a fabricated temporary experience? Not to mention, his temporary experience does not even skim the surface of the long-term social and emotional repercussions that racism causes people who are the victims firsthand. I don’t see how this is beneficial or empowering for the Black German community…just as I don’t see how many things white people do over here in the U.S. do that is supposed to be empowering or beneficial for the African American communities, even though they make plenty of personal gain off their oppression (or oppression in general–just name the marginalized group).

    This is a fascinating article because over here in the U.S. I have been led to believe Germany is a progressive nation–a nation that takes human rights and racism very seriously. With that, I would imagine the lives of people of color in Germany would be more secure, safe, and of a higher quality in general than here in the U.S. I think when compared to the U.S. and facing it’s history, it is(?)…at least with how I understand Germany at this point. But it seems the differences with relation to racism might not be as great as I understood. I think back to one of my friends who is Black and born and raised in the South told me of an experience when she went to Germany many years back and she was discriminated against in a clothing store. She found the people to be generally unfriendly, but then suggested part of that might be cultural. She attributed her experience to both racism and just the culture–but she was only there for a couple of weeks and was a visitor. But she has had similar and worse experiences here as the white communities are not so nice here too–both racism and a racist culture, and the history that goes with it. In contrast, I could not imagine how a Black German would feel coming to the U.S., because that experience would be compounded with the racism and xenophobia. Unless Germany has a problem with xenophobia also? I don’t really know…. Interesting post

    Comment by Seattle in Texas — October 24, 2009 @ 3:15 am | Reply

  2. > I think for somebody who doesn’t “get” that racism is a real phenomenon, perhaps that might be a good exercise(?). Maybe even for folks who are in hate groups too(?)–get just a slight glimpse firsthand.

    I think that those in denial would remain in denial and many would still not be able to create an identity of their own without the “necessity” of a perceived ‘other’

    >This is a fascinating article because over here in the U.S. I have been led to believe Germany is a progressive nation–a nation that takes human rights and racism very seriously.

    No, I think Germany perfected the art of being a hypocritical Eurocentric nation. There are differences to the US and I think in some terms Germany is more “progressive”, but not progressive in terms of truly being honest and an open-minded society.

    >She found the people to be generally unfriendly, but then suggested part of that might be cultural. She attributed her experience to both racism and just the culture–but she was only there for a couple of weeks and was a visitor. But she has had similar and worse experiences here as the white communities are not so nice here too–both racism and a racist culture, and the history that goes with it. In contrast, I could not imagine how a Black German would feel coming to the U.S., because that experience would be compounded with the racism and xenophobia. Unless Germany has a problem with xenophobia also? I don’t really know…. Interesting post

    The “friendliness” also depends where you are in Germany.
    For Americans, not all Germans are truly welcoming towards Americans also because of your military here, one aspect I get the impression, many Americans tend to ignore because for you it seems normal to occupy the entire world. There is also some resistance against being Americanized. I think we will fail with that, unfortunately and I also believe that Germany will go ‘backwards’ and becoming a more and more capitalist and money=god nation. Wal-Mart had to leave, many other ‘American-way-of-life’ companies like McDonalds unfortunately are quite successful as well as American movies, music, fashion etc.

    On average I think Germany is a quite hostile country and in many ways blatantly racist, suffering from collective amnesia when it comes to German atrocities besides the genocide of Jews

    Comment by jwbe — October 24, 2009 @ 6:31 pm | Reply

  3. On the first point, I think your probably right…perhaps too many without that necessity? I don’t really know…but an interesting way of looking at it. And it’s sad that such would even have to come to a point of necessity before the psyche could/would weaken to allow for the possibility of a perceived other to be possible.

    Yes, America seems to think it has a duty and right to occupy the world. I cannot remember if I had said this before, but here in the U.S. I have never seen a person in a different military uniform from the U.S. (not to say others have, but I doubt it–unless it were for a formal event of some sort), not even from Canada or Mexico. It’s an invisible privilege for America I think. And when Americans go abroad and see their U.S. military occupying other nations, does it cross their minds that this might be problematic for the citizens, do they feel pride, is it just a sense of “normality” for them that they/we do not question?

    The U.S. decidedly suffers from a deliberate and calculated collective amnesia with relation to its own genocides and with relation to the Holocaust only remembers the Jewish people taken also…what about the other half of the people? And it bothers me when it is called a war against Jews or what have you–it leaves out so much and the pain and memories of the other targeted and affected groups…including white Germans who opposed the Third Reich. Many people were victims.

    Comment by Seattle in Texas — October 24, 2009 @ 9:11 pm | Reply

  4. >On the first point, I think your probably right…perhaps too many without that necessity? I don’t really know…but an interesting way of looking at it. And it’s sad that such would even have to come to a point of necessity before the psyche could/would weaken to allow for the possibility of a perceived other to be possible.

    I don’t know of any study of white self-perception and stereotyping an alleged other. I think the more somebody stereotypes an alleged other the more distorted is also ones self-perception. I think a ‘white mind’ identifies him/herself with so-called positive stereotypes about whiteness/Europeaness (as if s/he was already this ideal) regardless of how somebody actually is and this does only work by degrading the surroundings. Only then somebody can ‘become’ this ideal. Did you ever observe how many white people are the exact opposite of what they think they are? I find this interesting in that aspect that I would like to understand how this works.

    >The U.S. decidedly suffers from a deliberate and calculated collective amnesia with relation to its own genocides and with relation to the Holocaust only remembers the Jewish people taken also…what about the other half of the people? And it bothers me when it is called a war against Jews or what have you–it leaves out so much and the pain and memories of the other targeted and affected groups…including white Germans who opposed the Third Reich. Many people were victims.

    I think this happens deliberately, also in Germany. When ordinary people would truly understand that they bring their own executioners to power this would perhaps mean the end of white supremacy. To a certain degree ws lives from the stupidity of people I guess. I am even not so really sure if the way we vote for politicians is such a good idea. Every idiot is allowed to vote and those most easily to be manipulated are in most cases also those in the majority.

    Comment by jwbe — October 24, 2009 @ 10:08 pm | Reply

  5. I found this website http://blackexpat.com/new/magazine-archives/, there are also two Black Americans talking about their experiences in Germany. (click the years 2008 and 2009)
    The difficulty in Germany is that there are no statistics/datas based on race, therefore there are no facts regarding discrimination based on race and no way to actually prove the real impact of discrimation.
    Gemany collects data/some data regarding nationality which I think makes it even more difficult for white Germans to understand that not everybody who does not look German according their perception actually also is non-German. Many or most perceive ‘non-white’ automatically as ‘foreign’ also in terms of nationality.

    Comment by jwbe — October 24, 2009 @ 11:36 pm | Reply

  6. Please forgive me–I’m getting over my shock from coming to a blog site where I can ask questions and get feedback! Moreover, what appears to be a place where I can ask honest questions and get down to earth dialogue! 🙂 Most awesome.

    Thank for the link. I read a couple of the articles and the two I read were written by Black men who were originally from the U.S., lived in Germany for a short time, came back to the U.S. and decided Germany was their home. There were some interesting U.S./Germany comparisons there.

    I did not know Germany did not keep statistics on race. I think there are pros and cons. I’ve often wondered if keeping them is actually racist in and of itself, as it reinforces distorted conceptions that race is a real thing–conceptions beyond the more accurate “human race”. Though the whole colorblind thing is equally problematic. And what makes me skeptical of the U.S. keeping statistics by race is that the already distorted social constructs and definitions keep changing. There were periods were Latino groups were counted as white, then not for example. The white category is the one that has had the most fluctuation across the time they’ve been collecting the data for the Census. The Black category has remained pretty constant in many respects. This is troublesome in a few ways. For example, what about bi/multi-racial folks? This seems to keep the dichotomous racist notions of “Black” and “White” in place, along with the racist very old “one drop rule”. Perhaps keeps the various types of segregation in place also–both physical and psychological. And in the past it seems as though when the “white” group seems to be low in numbers, they include more people into the white social construct, which makes it appear as though the white group is the majority here–even though many who may be included or assigned to the white category in that particular point in time are not considered and treated as “white” by white mainstream society. However, without keeping the Census, we would not be able to do much research on racism.

    I appreciate what you say about voting. Over here I think it’s been that the majority of idiots have been the ones voting, with the exception of this last election…all the idiots still voted, it’s just we got huge numbers of people who normally don’t vote because they gave up on having any hope in politics to come in. It actually worked. The biggest number of first time voters ever as far as I know. But many Americans have rightfully so become cynical of politics (Nixon, “W”). It’s been difficult to take it seriously, as well as the empty promises of politicians and so on. But this nation still disenfranchises people–felons for example, the very people who need to be able to vote on policies that affect their own lives. It does other things to discourage the marginal from both voting and tapping into opportunities to play active roles in their local level political venues within their communities. I don’t know exactly how the voting works in Germany? If it’s different from the U.S.?

    Comparisons of the U.S. and Germany are fascinating. Thank you

    Comment by Seattle in Texas — October 25, 2009 @ 4:26 pm | Reply

  7. Germany doesn’t keep statistics based on race, also because of history where statistics based on race enabled a genocide.

    >However, without keeping the Census, we would not be able to do much research on racism.

    I think that research on racism is also possible without statistics, but the impact of racism is impossible to prove. The impact of racism can easier be down-played to ‘individual prejudice’ without statistics I think.
    Some Turks in Germany want to have a system of something like affirmative action (we only have quotas for women so far in some areas), this would mean that we in Germany, if AA is actually introduced, would also need statistics based on ‘race’ etc.

    >If it’s different from the U.S.?

    Quite different. First, the right to vote (for citizens) is basic German law, only in few cases there is voter disenfranchisment. (For crimes against the constitution for example). ‘Ordinariy’ felons don’t lose there basic laws, means they can vote.

    In Germany you don’t vote for an individual person but a political party. Parties have their specific agendas and members of a party represent/agree (more or less) with this agenda. In Germany, Obama and Kucinich for example wouldn’t have been in the same party. They would be the head of two different parties, being the persons the party considers as the best person to represent the agenda of the party as possible chancellor.
    In the election this year the now leading party (CDU (center-right) with Merkel as chancellor) only got about 32% of the vote, the other votes went to other parties, that’s the reason why there is not a real majority necessary to be able to become the leading party/government.

    Comment by jwbe — October 25, 2009 @ 9:44 pm | Reply

  8. I see. Whose to say they haven’t been used for bad purposes here too? People say it’s more segregated in this nation today than it ever has been in history. My brother was telling me that a place, “Highland Park” I believe it’s called in Detroit, African American populated, now has no police station, fire department, and the street lights no longer work because this part of the city cannot afford to pay power. There are destroyed buildings, homes, etc. Michigan has one of the fastest increasing prison populations in the U.S. followed with privatized prisons. He equated this ongoing crisis lived by many for decades to damage Katrina caused New Orleans–not saying they were “equally” bad per se because that’s not what he was meaning–both are results of white supremacy. But he was talking about how one got massive media news coverage and while the other has been virtually invisible and silenced (like many other African American populated communities). They are two different kinds of catastrophes that didn’t need to be and both could have been prevented–and both affecting primarily African American communities. One was slower over many years of neglect and marginalization–various sorts of racism. The other, while caused from a natural disaster, the levies and so forth could have been fixed years before if they knew they were bad. The lists on how people are affected in their geographical regions, by Census, could go on for a long while…. In any event, it appears it could be used for both good and bad.

    Thank you for sharing how the politics in Germany works–probably many already know this stuff…I’m ignorant on many things–though not too late to learn. It might be related to that suggestion that Americans do not have to know about other countries, but other countries have to know about the U.S. because it is the oppressor? I saw Michael Moore several years back–he brought three Canadians from the audience and three of so-called “smartest” students from the university up on stage. He asked each the same questions putting the “U.S.” then “Canada” in them. The Canadians could answer all the questions and the U.S. people could only answer the questions on the U.S. and couldn’t fill in the blanks for Canada–Canada was like less than 100 miles away or so? Anyway, thank you

    Comment by Seattle in Texas — October 26, 2009 @ 9:06 pm | Reply

  9. First off, Noah Sow is not a “he”, but a “she”. Second, how did a discussion about a film purporting to depict the victimization of blacks in Germany become a discussion about Germans as the victims of US occupation?

    “white” people…

    (((shakin’ head)))

    Comment by Michael Fisher — October 27, 2009 @ 4:51 am | Reply

  10. >First off, Noah Sow is not a “he”, but a “she”.

    Yes I know, I edited it in the article

    I don’t think that mentioning American occupation makes the discussion about German victimization. And American occupation is not irrelevant in the history of Germany. I think that after WWII Germany would have had the chance to actually work on her past but it was also American occupation with white Americans preventing this.

    Comment by jwbe — October 27, 2009 @ 10:16 am | Reply

  11. jwbe…

    “I think that after WWII Germany would have had the chance to actually work on her past but it was also American occupation with white Americans preventing this.”

    And where would the historical evidence be that the Germans as a nation would have actually critically examined their racial thinking? I don’t see it. Nor have white Americans prevented any such examination because they didn’t have too. It was never seriously initiated by the Germans. Nor have I witnessed a single German ever victimized by the US occupation of that country. Fact is, without the US occupation, Germany, that is, the Federal Republic, would’ve been stripped of her industrial capacity (as was the GDR) and put in a straight-jacket by the Soviets and the French. Plus who knows what the British would’ve done – likely stand by and watch.

    Comment by Michael Fisher — October 30, 2009 @ 3:29 am | Reply

  12. http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8048.html

    Comment by jwbe — October 30, 2009 @ 10:13 am | Reply

    • jwbe, that book does not provide proof for your assertion. If the Germans had wanted to conduct a comprehensive review of their racial attitudes they would have done so with or without American approval or disapproval. They did so in all other areas of politics and social organization, from Communism to Neo-Nazism, both pro and con. Your contention serves to absolve the Germans from responsibility for their anti-black racism. It’s a very German move, by the way, particularly and consistently and lovingly employed by the German left. A la “if it weren’t for the Nazis, Treitschke, the Kaiser, the Americans Imperialists, etc…” there’d be no racism in Germany.

      Comment by Michael Fisher — October 30, 2009 @ 1:04 pm | Reply

  13. no, I don’t absolve Germans, but there was a chance missed by occupation forces to actually turn Germany into what they allegedly wanted, a democratic nation. Nations don’t change via good intentions but political pressure only.

    Comment by jwbe — October 30, 2009 @ 1:23 pm | Reply

  14. “there was a chance missed by occupation forces to actually turn Germany into what they allegedly wanted, a democratic nation. Nations don’t change via good intentions but political pressure only.”

    That sentence still absolves the Germans from responsibility.

    “Nations don’t change via good intentions but political pressure only”.

    Since this is stated as a general principle applying to all nations, then any nation that does not change absent “political pressure” can’t be blamed for it’s own inertia.

    Nations, however, are made up of individual people. Individual people have the power to make individual choices. Especially when they are familiar with a set of ethical principles derived from what is generally known as the concept of justice.

    You statement then, absolves every individual white person who says he/she is German from having made the choice of participating or tolerating in injustice, that is, “Mitwisserschaft”.

    Once again, it appears to be a “white anti-racist” who seems to be the one who perpetrates the most sophisticated and subtle acts of racism.

    Comment by Michael Fisher — October 30, 2009 @ 8:15 pm | Reply

  15. you are of course entitled to understand it that way you want to understand it

    Comment by jwbe — October 30, 2009 @ 8:38 pm | Reply

    • “you are of course entitled to understand it that way you want to understand it”

      That’s an ambiguous non-answer.

      In any case. You want to do something concrete against racism in Germany? Send some money, no a lot of money, to the Braune Mob so they can be more effective in their work. I’m sure you know their website. If not, let me know.

      Comment by Michael Fisher — October 30, 2009 @ 10:53 pm | Reply

  16. Interesting. I was treated better by the Germans than the French, but then, that’s my experience.

    Comment by M Karman — December 23, 2009 @ 4:16 pm | Reply

  17. Thanks for sharing your thoughts on nations.
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